Sunday, May 24, 2020
As the American economy matured in the 20th century, the freewheeling business mogul lost luster as an American ideal. The crucial change came with the emergence of the corporation, which appeared first in the railroad industry. Other industries soon followed. Business barons were being replaced by technocrats, high-salaried managers who became the heads of corporations. By the start of the 20th century, the era of the industrialist and the robber baron was coming to a close. It was not so much that these influential and wealthy entrepreneurs (who generally personally owned majority and controlling stakes in their industry) disappeared, but rather that they were replaced with corporations.Ã The rise of the corporation triggered, in turn, the rise of an organized labor movement that served as a countervailing force to the power and influence of business. The Changing Face of the Early American Corporation The largest early 20th-century corporations were much larger and more complicated than the commercial enterprises that came before. To maintain profitability in a changing economic climate, American companies in industries as diverse as oil refining to whiskey distilling began to emerge in the late 19th century. These new corporations, or trusts, were exploiting a strategy known as horizontal combination, which granted those corporations the ability to limit production in order to raise prices and maintain profitability. But these corporations regularly ran into legal trouble as violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Some companies took another route, employing a strategy of vertical integration. Instead of maintaining prices through control of the production supply as in horizontal strategies, vertical strategies relied on obtaining control in all aspects of the supply chain required to produce their product, which gave these corporations more control over their costs. With more control over costs came more stable and protected profitability for the corporation. With the development of these more complicated corporations came the need for new management strategies. Though the highly centralized management of previous eras did not entirely disappear, these new organizations gave rise to more decentralized decision-making through divisions. While still overseen by central leadership, divisional corporate executives would eventually be given more responsibility for business decisions and leadership in their own piece of the corporation. By the 1950s, this multi-divisional organizational structure became the growing norm for large corporations, which generally moved corporations away from reliance on high-profile executives and solidified the fall of the business barons of the past.Ã Ã The Technological Revolution of the 1980s and 1990s The technological revolution of the 1980s and 1990s,Ã however, brought a new entrepreneurial culture that echoed the age of tycoons. For instance, Bill Gates, the head of Microsoft, built an immense fortune developing and selling computer software. Gates carved out an empire so profitable that by the late 1990s, his company was taken into court and accused of intimidating rivals and creating a monopoly by the U.S. Justice Departments antitrust division. But Gates also established a charitable foundation that quickly became the largest of its kind. Most American business leaders of today do not lead the high-profile life of Gates. They differ greatly from the tycoons of the past. While they direct the fate of corporations, they also serve on boards of charities and schools. They are concerned about the state of the national economy and Americas relationship with other nations, and they are likely to fly to Washington to confer with government officials. While they undoubtedly influe nce the government, they do not control it Ã¢â¬â as some tycoons in the Gilded Age believed they did.
Posted by d at 12:23 AM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
According to Simmons et al. (2009), autism is classified as a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, social communication, and an unusually restricted range of behaviors and interests. Along with behavioral and social impairments, a diagnosis of autism also requires a clinically significant delay in language development before the age of three. Asperger Syndrome has similar signs and symptoms to autism without the language delay. Together with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), these disorders form the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders (Simmons et al., 2009). Because the signs and symptoms of ASDs are almost entirely behavioral, a variety of tests, interviews, and direct or indirect observations are used in different combinations based on age and/or language level to receive the most reliable diagnosis. Although there is controversy regarding the increased prevalence of ASDs, it is obvious that there is highe r regard for understanding the nature of these disorders, causing an increase of research related to this field of study. It is to be noted, however, that there are a handful of general issues to be addressed when running experiments with afflicted individuals. These issues include: which part of the autism spectrum to target, how to convey instructions and maintain attention in severely affected individuals, difficulty recruiting volunteers due to social reticence, and a change ofShow MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslife there are several different disorders that have been well known from many years ago. There is one disorder that was diagnosed in the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until a few years ago that it gained lots of attention. What used to be known as Autism was later renamed in the DSM to Autism Spectrum Disorder meaning, a neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a pervasive developmental disorder (Gargiulo, 2015). Au tism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal or impairedRead MoreMason was not unlike many children in that according to the most recent Center for Disease Control800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessixty-eight children is on the autism spectrum. This is a 30% increase from the findings reported two years ago of one in every eight-eight children. The current study also reports that the proportion of boys with autism (1 in 42) is significantly higher that girls (1 in 189) (10 Things to Know About New Autism Data. 2014). Changes in the DSM-V that incorporated Asperger syndrome (AS), autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified intoRead MoreThe Neurodevelopmental Disorders ( Asd )1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe neurodevelopmental disorders, according to the DSM 5, are a group of conditions with onset in the developmental period. The disorders typically manifest early in development, often befor e the child enters grade school, and are characterized by developmental deficits that produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is newly classified as such; it was once classified as Ã¢â¬Å"AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome.Ã¢â¬ ASD is a severe neurodevelopmental impairmentRead MoreA Research Study On Autistic Spectrum Disorder802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAutistic spectrum disorder, also known as ASD can be defined as a group of complex developmental disorders characterized by impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, behavioral challenges, impaired cognitive abilities, and impaired social interactions. Nurse practitioners providing primary health care to children should be familiar with ASD for early identification, evaluation, and management as this is significantly important to the well-being of children and their families. The purposeRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder Paper866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAutism spect rum disorder first became a diagnosed disorder when it was described by a psychiatrist named, Leo Kanner in 1943. As a result of a study he conducted involving 11 children, he developed a diagnostic criteria based on observations of repetitive, stereotyped behavior with consistent impairment in social interactions (Volden, 2017). Over time however, autism became synonymous with AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder and pervasive developmental disorder that included similar, but widely different diagnosticRead MoreAsperger s Syndrome Among Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders818 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAutistic Spectrum Disorders The autism spectrum disorder is neurobehavioral deterioration that involve language developmental disorder a combined with low social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors. The severity of the disorder varies from mild, moderate, and sever, and the diagnosis tend to be changeable according to several factors such as the severity and the kind of therapy that the child received during early years. There is an increased prevalence of the disorder among children withinRead MoreAsperger s Syndrome Among Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAutistic Spectrum Disorders The autism spectrum disorder is neurobehavioral deterioration that involves language developmental disorder combined with low social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors. The severity of the disorder varies from mild, moderate, and severe, and the diagnosis tends to be changeable according to several factors such as the severity and the kind of therapy that the child received during early years. There is an increased prevalence of the disorder among children withinRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd ) Essay1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder Neurodevelopmental Disorders are conditions that become evident in early developmental stages before children are introduced to elementary school (APA, 2013). These disorders have developmental deficiencies that restrict children from Ã¢â¬Å"personal, social, academic, or occupational functioningÃ¢â¬ (APA, 2013, pp. 31). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, has been represented as a complex brain abnormality that effects childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive, behavioralRead MorePrevalence Of Depression And Autism Spectrum Disorder1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFunctioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Kelvin Davis PSY 1022 Monday, October 14, 2013 Wednesday 8:00 am Word CountÃ¢â¬Æ' Abstract Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are quite vulnerable to anxiety and depression, especially in late adolescence and early adult life (Tantum Prestwood, 1999). In accordance with a study sampling children between 7 and 13 years of age (Vickerstaff, Heriot, Wong, Lopes Dossetor, 2006), it is hypothesized that adolescents on the autism spectrumRead MorePervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) Essay1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The term Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) refers a group of disorders that pertain to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s communication, social, and developmental skills. Symptoms can be detected as early as infancy, as some cases are identified before the age of three. Children or toddlers with PDD may show difficulty relating to others and often have trouble using and understanding language. In addition, they may have unusual behavior patterns and demonstrate resistance during a change in their routine. PDD is a general
Posted by d at 12:15 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In modern constitutional democracies, it is axiomatic that citizens have a right to know about the affairs of the Government which, having been elected by them, seeks to formulate sound policies of governance aimed at their welfare. The ideals of modern democracy are built up on the principle that freedom of speech and expression is necessary, for self expression which is an important means of free conscience and self fulfillment. It enables people to contribute to debates of social and moral issues. We will write a custom essay sample on Right to Information Act in Indian Democracy or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is the best way to find a truest model of anything, since it is only through it, that the widest possible range of ideas can circulate. It is the only vehicle of political discourse so essential to democracy and the largest democratic country, India, stands 55th in the list of 68 countries in the enactment of Right to Information. Inorder to promote transparency and accountability in administration, the Indian Parliament enacted the Freedom of Information Act, 2002, which was repealed later and a new act, the Right to Information Act( RTI) came into force on 12 October 2005. The new law empowers Indian citizens to seek information from a public authority, thus making the Government and its functionaries more accountable and responsible.As our former PM Atal Behari Vajpayee had said, Ã¢â¬ The Government wants to share power with the humblest; it wants to empower the weakest. Ã¢â¬ It is precisely because of this reason that the RTI has to be ensured for all. It is a matter of pride that we have given to ourselves a tool which has the potential to usher in transparency and reduce corruption . Information is indispen sable for the functioning of a true democracy. People have to be kept informed about current affairs and broad issues-political, financial, social and economic.Soli Sorabjee stressing on the need of RTI aim at bringing transparency in administration and public life, says, Ã¢â¬ Lack of transparency was one of the main causes for all pervading corruption and RTI would lead to openness, accountability and integrity. Ã¢â¬ More important than the issue of corruption, each and every one of us being the citizens of a democratic country like India are the unlabeled rulers of our country. We elect our representatives to do our part and so every citizen has the right to be informed of what happens in his country except some information that has confidential nature.RTI is critical for the existence of democracy. Only with the right information, we can work in the right way. With the information, people can fight corruption, they can expose corruption, they can check whether the governmental strategies are aiming the right way, they can engage in democracy. We just get informaton initially and after that we have to participate in governance. Until the implementation of RTI, democracy used to be from election to election that goes for five years. Now we can go out and say that we want to participate in the governance.It has been highlighted in various reports through many case studies that RTI has adequate Ã¢â¬Å"teethÃ¢â¬ to bring in transparency and reduce corruption. But the case studies accept the fact that the Act has not yet reached the stage of implementation which was envisioned. The Government/Public Authority machinery was not found well-equipped to respond to the needs of the RTI. There is a serious failure in record management (where there is delay in processing and the PIOs not being aware of record management guidelines). There is also lack of training /knowledge and the usage of information technology is very less. Most of the PIOs have taken up the role unwillingly leading to low motivation among them. A separate study is recommended to improve the current record management systems and make them Ã¢â¬Å"RTI friendlyÃ¢â¬ . Inorder to ensure good performance of PIOs in implementing the Right to Information Act, allocation of responsibility of PIOs and AAs to senior level officials in a Public Authority is required. Also,mass awareness campaigns may be conducted to increase public knowledge and awareness.This may also help to encourage citizen involvement and debates. Awareness could be created within the authority by putting displays. A conducive and facilitative environment at Government offices is a necessary condition to ensure that citizens are able to apply and receive information in a convenient manner. If all these flaws and inadequacies in the implementation of the law are rectified, the Act can definitely become a wonderful Ã¢â¬Ëdemocratic toolÃ¢â¬â¢ which can help people well informed, be aware of the way our country is progressing, take part in democracy and have a transparent society. How to cite Right to Information Act in Indian Democracy, Papers
Posted by d at 1:06 PM
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about theSplice Sleevefor Classroom and Shop Manuals. Answer: Introduction The splice sleeve is a coupler used for compression pre-cast, tilt up and other similar connections. The splice sleeve connectors are very effective for column-to-footing and column-topier cap bridge assembly (Parks et al., 2016). The splice sleeve coupler has proved its durability against earthquakes over the years. Splice sleeve coupler is connected between the prefabricated concrete. It provides great construction tolerance and load transfer mechanism (Amelia et al., 2016). Research has demonstrated that splice sleeve couple provides durability and increases the displacement ductility of the structure. The report discussed the benefits and complexities associated with the coupler. The paper is based on research of literature and practical examples. Innovation of Splice Sleeve (why it is used in Civil Construction Projects) Splice sleeve was innovated in the late 1960s and has been in use in the civil engineering sector for over the past 40 years. The first innovation was done in the USA before it spread to japan and all over the world. Splice sleeve is used in civil engineering because of its high-performance properties. Due to this property, no fatalities have been reported related to the application of this device(Pickerill, 2017, p. 241). It is used I buildings to withstand the deformations and stresses resulting from earthquakes. Design of Splice Sleeve The design of s splice sleeve can best be demonstrated by taking the example of NMB splice sleeve. The NMB splice sleeve is one of a mechanical coupler used in the splicing of reinforcing bars that applies a sleeve which is cylindrical in shape. The cylindrically shaped steel is filled with cement on the basis of high early strength grout. From this step, the reinforcing bars which are to be spliced are entered into the sleeve. These reinforcing bars are inserted in such a way that they converge at almost the sleeve centre. SS Mortar is then used in filling the interior of the sleeve. It is also important to note that SS Mortar is the only grout acceptable grout as certified by SSNA as conforming to the requirements and standards to be used in splice sleeves under ICC-ESR 3433. There are two codes used as guides in the design of splice sleeves i.e. ACI 318-08(IBC-2006, UBC-970), Type 1 and 2. According to type 1, the specified mean rebar point should be a minimum of 125%. On the other hand, for the case of type 2, ACI31808 provides the guideline in the spacing of the bars for any specified tensile strength of the splice sleeve(Loo, 2009, p. 188). In this type, a specified minimum of 160% of the yield point of rebar can as well be adopted in line with ICBO UBC-97. Importantly, if the splice lies within a moderate to the high seismic region of a plastic hinge joint, then type 2 must be specified. On one end of the precast element, sleeves are embedded at the precast plant. The principal reinforcing bars are inserted midway into the sleeves and the bars are made to protrude from the other end of the precast element. During the construction stage, the precast members that were precast at the precasting plant are joined. This is done through the insertion of protruding bars from the end of the precast element into the sleeves of the adjacent member. This is followed by grouting of the sleeves thereby creating a continuity of the reinforcing bars throughout the connection. This process is called emulation and the splice sleeve made through this process is known to be an emulative connection for precast systems. Strength of Splice Sleeve Splice sleeves have both compressive and tensional strengths which are above the minimum provisions by ASTM A706 and A615. The strength is achieved through embedding the sleeve bars to one end of the precast elements after the precast(Pickerill, 2017, p. 216). The material components are partly a reason for the consistency excellent performance including steel. Durability of Splice Sleeve Due to their high strength and ability to withstand both compressive and tensile forces, splice sleeves are very durable and can be used for a long duration. By embedding sleeve bars into precast elements, a stronger and more durable structure is formed. Splice sleeves have been made even more durable by fabrication and design of mechanical splices. These splices are made by modifying the conventional steel pipes with steel spiral reinforcement, bolts, steel bars which are straight and tapered shapes which improve the strength of the bond and the confinement pressure. Still, some sleeve spices are made of hollow sections square in shape, aluminium tubes besides polymer reinforced with fibre instead of the cylindrical steel pipe initially used in the splice region. These modifications aid in the elimination of the spread of splitting cracks in the grout (mechanical locking material) around bars of steel. All these end up in increasing the overall strength of splice sleeves and hence the durability. Uses of Splice Sleeve Due to their high performance in the provision of solid support for the structure, splice sleeves find their applications in: Retaining walls Concrete Barge Sound Barrier walls Concrete box culvert; and Caisson In all these above applications, the strength and durability form the basis of the preference of sleeve splice (Amelia et al., 2016). Merits and Demerits of Splice Sleeve Merits Include: High compressive and tensile strength: Slip sleeves take advantage of the mechanical gripping of the reinforcing bars and the slip-bond resistance of the grout to achieve maximum tensile strength. In such a setup, the grout serves to be the medium of transfer of load as well as the bonding material between sleeves and bars. High durability: as a result of the high tensile and compressive strengths and the nature of the materials used in the design of splice sleeves their durability is highly enhanced. High stiffness of the components: Steel, hollow square sections and aluminum tubes and Portland cement which are the main materials used in the design of slip sleeves are very stiff hence able to withstand external forces which would otherwise lead to breakage and therefore failure of the system. Saves time as it is quick to assemble: The design of slip sleeves involves not only a few components but also simple components. The simplicity of the components extends to the simplicity with which the assemblage is done. It basically involves inserting the reinforcing bars into sleeves and protruding it from the other end of the already precast elements. The bars are joined adjacent to each other and then reinforced for continuity. High performance: for over the 40 years since slip sleeves were first deployed in the construction, there have not been any reported serious cases of failure of systems built on them. Instead, excellent and high-quality performances have been recorded thereby the reason for the continued increase in the popularity and use of the material. Disadvantages Costly construct splice sleeves: The construction of splice sleeves involve two stages which occur at different places i.e. precasting of elements done at the precasting plant and the actual design and assemblage of the sleeves which is done at the construction stage/industry. Can easily shrink under bad environmental conditions hence proper storage against environmental hazards is required. The sleeves must be kept away from extra heat to maintain its usefulness. This makes it quite challenging to be used in regions with hot and dry climates. Requires proper management of slack to avoid any future connectors damage. An omission of such care would lead to considerable design failures. References Parks, J., Papulak, T., Pantelides, C. (2016). Acoustic emission monitoring of grouted splice sleeve connectors and reinforced precast concrete bridge assemblies. Construction and Building Materials, 122, 537-547. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.06.076 Ameli, M. J., Brown, D. N., Parks, J. E., Pantelides, C. P. (2016). Seismic column-to-footing connections using grouted splice sleeves. ACI Structural Journal, 113(5), 1021-1030. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.14359/51688755 Loo, G. K. (2009). Parametric Study of Grout-filled Splice Sleeve Integrated with Flexible Aluminium Tube for Precast Concrete Connection. Louis: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Pickerill, K. (2017). Today's Technician: Automotive Engine Performance, Classroom and Shop Manuals, Spiral bound Version. New York: Cengage Learning.
Posted by d at 5:48 PM
Friday, March 27, 2020
A relatively recent issue of The New York Times presents a story about Mirtala Garcia and Sebastiao Lourenco (Grady 2011). Mirtala was the wife of a deceased organ donor Julio Garcia. Julio died of blood hemorrhage, and since he had previously agreed to donate his organs, Sebastiao Lourenco received his heart (Grady 2011). Mirtala and Sebastiao are now close friends, and Mirtala is glad that at least her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s heart is still alive (Grady 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethical Issues in Organ Donation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Stories like this one have become relatively frequent in the press, and they are bound to incite positive emotional reactions. However, the organ donation practice faces many problems and challenges, which have to be overcome. This paper will deal with the specific issue of how to determine when a potential organ donor has deceased, and his or her organs ca n be transplanted. It will argue that the best approach is to treat a person as dead when the irreversible loss of bodily functions and the irreversible loss of consciousness have both occurred. In addition to the romantic side of organ donation practices described in Grady (2011), there are many problems that medicine faces in this domain, and the current state of affairs has to be improved. Satel (2006) presents some devastating statistics related to the current state in the organ donation practice. In the United States, 70 000 people have their names on waiting lists for kidney transplantations (Satel 2006). According to some estimates, most of them will wait from five to eight years until they finally receive the organ and continue with their lives (Satel 2006). If, to this number, one adds those who are waiting for a donation of some other organ, it becomes clear how many lives depend on the practice of organ donation. Nonetheless, there are many problems which have to be solve d in order to reduce the number of people on those lists significantly. Some authors, politicians and activists have put forth their own ideas of the solution to the crisis in organ donation. For instance, Richard Brodsky, an Assemblyman of the Democratic Party in New York, introduced a bill which would enlist all American citizens as potential organ donors (Should Laws Push for Organ Donation? 2010). The bill would, of course, give an opportunity to those who, for some reason, do not want to be potential donors to exempt themselves by simply signing one document. While discussing some other ways in which countries could encourage potential organ donors, Rampell (2009) cites the case of the Israeli government.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Israeli authorities gave priority on organ donation waiting lists to those people who had agreed to be potential organ donors themselve s. However, before addressing those practical issues, the governments have to address some fundamental questions related to the legal treatment of organ donation. The practice of organ donation is a controversial topic in areas as diverse as law, medicine and philosophy. Furthermore, as with any issue that is related to human life, religion also plays and important role in the debate. Medew (2008) writes about an academic article that dealt with the issues related to organ donation and attracted a lot of public attention. The author of the article, James Tibballs, a professor of pediatrics, argues for the reassessment of the legal definition of death and the methods by which death is certified by the physicians who perform organ transplantation procedures (Medew 2008). Tibballs argues that the legal definitions of death are designed to accommodate for organ donation practices and are problematic on several grounds. The Australian law defines death as Ã¢â¬Å"either irreversible cessa tion of all functions of [the] brain or irreversible cessation of blood circulationÃ¢â¬ (Mewdew 2008). Tibballs finds these criteria unacceptable because, according to him, the cessation of functions of the brain cannot be determined with certainty, and the criterion related to the cessation of blood circulation is too loose because according to it, a person is dead after his or her heart fails to restart for two minutes (Mewdew 2008). The criterion of Ã¢â¬Å"brain deathÃ¢â¬ in terms of the cessation of functions of the brain is problematic because it is too vague. For example, many doctors would characterize a person as brain dead even though many of his or her brain cells are still active. In addition, clinical assessment of brain activity, according to Tibballs, is insufficient because the brain activity can be assessed with certainty only by using blood flow measurements, which is rarely done in medical institutions (Mewdew 2008). A comprehensive study by the National Heal th and Medical Research Council (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997) addresses most of the challenges raised by Tibballs. The study presents a philosophical investigation into the nature of death, which is then used to argue that organ donation practices are conducted in accordance with the strictest ethical standards. According to the authors of the study, death is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"the irreversible loss of the integrated and coordinated life of the person as a single living organismÃ¢â¬ (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997, p. 3Ã ).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethical Issues in Organ Donation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The authors examine the three traditional approaches to the definition of death in the Western philosophical tradition in order to establish the best approach. According to the first definition, death is seen as the permanent cessation of breathing. This definition is rejected by the authors because modern medicine can keep a person alive by means of artificial ventilators even though his or her lungs cannot operate by themselves (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997). The second definition that relies on the cessation of the heart beat is rejected on the same grounds (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997). The third definition that sees death as the irreversible loss of consciousness seems to be the most useful one, but it too needs some further improvements. When dealing with the third definition the problem is essentially reduced to the question of what constitutes consciousness. One approach that can be found in the literature is the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"only higher brainÃ¢â¬ approach. The most famous advocate for this approach is Peter Singer who sees the cortical structures of the human brain, which are related to higher cognitive faculties, as being crucial for personhood (Singer 1994). The destruction of these structures, according to Singer (1994), results in the death of a person. However, this approach is deeply problematic. The first problem that arises with this definition is that it would characterize people in the so-called vegetative state and anencephalic children as non-persons, which entails that it would be perfectly ethical to take their organs for donations (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997). The second problem is that it is extremely difficult to be certain whether cortical structures have been destroyed in a person whose lower brain structures still function (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997). Consequently, this approach has to be rejected. The approach which should be taken in order to determine if a person is dead is one that includes the examination of both the higher brain and lower brain structures. Accordingly, National Health and Medical Research Council (Certifying death: The brain function crit erion 1997, p. 6) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"human consciousness is dependent on the function of both the cerebral hemispheres Ã¢â¬ ¦ and the reticular activating system in the brain stemÃ¢â¬ . From the above definition, it follows that death takes place after both the subcortical structure and the neo-cortex have suffered extensive injuries.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The final question raised by Tibballs is whether or not the current practice in organ donation is in accordance with the legal definition. The current law defines death as Ã¢â¬Å"the cessation of all brain functionÃ¢â¬ (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997). It has to be recognized that the current definition is too vague, and whether or not the current practice is in accordance with it is a matter of interpretation. If under Ã¢â¬Å"all functionÃ¢â¬ one assumes the functions of each particular cell in the brain, it would follow that the current practice is often in breach of the law. However, such a definition would be absurd because death is a process, and many cells in the body continue to live long after the person has died. The definition can also be interpreted as a reformulation of the definition offered by the National Health and Medical Research Council (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997) in which Ã¢â¬Å"all brain functionÃ¢â¬ is see n as the integrated function of the entire brain. The legal definition should be made more precise in this respect because the definition offered by the National Health and Medical Research Council is both theoretically sound and practically viable. In conclusion, before dealing with the issues of encouragement of the public and other practical problems, the organ donation authorities have to reach consensus around certain fundamental questions. The key ethical issue of the organ donation practice is the question of when a person can be regarded as dead. It has been argued that the National Health and Medical Research Council (Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997, p. 3), which defines death as Ã¢â¬Å"the irreversible loss of the integrated and coordinated life of the person as a single living organism,Ã¢â¬ offers by far the best theoretical approach to the issue. What has to be done next is to implement that theoretical framework into the legal system in order to a void misunderstandings that damage the popularity of the practice. References Certifying death: The brain function criterion 1997, National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra. Grady, D. 2011, One Death Provides New Life for Many. Web. Medew, J. 2008, Donors not truly Ã¢â¬ËdeadÃ¢â¬â¢ when organs removed. Web. Rampell, C. 2009, How Can Countries Encourage Organ Donation? Web. Satel, S. 2006, DeathÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting Lists. Web. Should Laws Push for Organ Donation? 2010. Web. Singer, P. 1994. Rethinking Live and Death, Text Publishing Co., Melbourne. This research paper on Ethical Issues in Organ Donation was written and submitted by user Maya D. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Posted by d at 12:40 AM
Friday, March 6, 2020
Root Causes of Financial Crisis in the 1990s Introduction Root Causes of Financial Crisis in the 1990s ]. Bisgnano J. (1999). Precarious Credit Equilibria: Reflections On The Asian Financial Crisis. BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS Monetary and Economic Department Basle, Switzerland Working Papers. Joosten W. (2004). The Asian Financial Crisis in Retrospect. What Happened? What Can we conclude? CPB Memorandum. CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis. Li, K., Kwok m. (2008). Output volatility of five crisis-affected East Asia economies Japan and the World Economy,Ã In Press, Corrected Proof,Ã Available online 24 April 2008. Lopez-Mejia, A. (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Large Capital Flows: A Survey of the Causes, Consequences, and Policy ResponsesÃ¢â¬ , Working Paper 99/17, IMF. Mahui, M. N., Maru, J. (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Financial Liberalisation and the Impact of the Financial Crisis on SingaporeÃ¢â¬ ,Ã Third World Network 131 Jalan Macalister, 10400 Penang, Malaysia. Pathan, S., Skully, M. Wickramanayake, J. (2008) Reforms in Thai bank governance: the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis, International Review of Financial Analysis, 17 (2), 345-362. World Bank (2000), East Asia: Recovery and Beyond, New York: Oxford University Press.
Posted by d at 8:23 PM
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Assess the claim that both sex and gender are systems of social classification - Essay Example This essay will involve the analysis of whether sex and gender are part of the social classification systems. Just like races and ethnic categorization in the society, gender and sex are socio-historical determined. Gender develops as people grow in the society, and it depends on the societal beliefs and cultural practices. It does not fall into the group of things people are born with but rather something that people do. Sex refers to the biological differences in the hormonal profile and the external sex organs while gender refers to the characteristics of the society or culture, and they categorize the people in the community as either masculine or feminine. For instance, societies have responsibilities and identities associated with either the masculine or feminine in the society. The acquisition of gender characteristics come through the socialization process and the interaction of people in the society (Strathern 1995). Socialization involves the acquisition of the values and traditions in the society and it takes place in a gradual form as one grows. A child born in a given setting will grow up holding on the values applicable in that community. This indicates that the society plays an i mportant role in defining the gender roles according to the sex of an individual. The common sense in the current society differentiates culture into two different aspects of human beings. The biological sense of womanhood lies in the womb, however, culture and societal values have transformed the definition of a woman (Stolcke, p.18). The analytical concept of gender challenges the universal biological concept because of the variations in the societal values. Martin egg outlines that the society believes in the cultural values to define biological concepts regarding human beings. The scientific books define male and female as egg and sperm. The society believes that the biological
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